Sodium chloride is a white odorless crystalline powder. It has a melting point of 801 ° C and a boiling point of 1465 ° C. It is slightly soluble in ethanol, propanol and butane. It becomes a plasma after being miscible with butane, and is easily soluble in water. The solubility in water is 35.9 g (room temperature). NaCl is dispersed in alcohol to form a colloid, and its solubility in water is reduced by the presence of hydrogen chloride, and it is hardly soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid. It is odorless and salty and easy to deliquesce. Soluble in water, soluble in glycerin, almost insoluble in ether.
The industrial use of Sodium chloride is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
1. When electrolyzing sodium chloride aqueous solution, hydrogen and chlorine gas are generated. Chlorine gas is widely used in chemical industry and can be used for synthesizing polyvinyl chloride, insecticide, hydrochloric acid and the like.
2. When sodium is prepared by the method of sodium sulphate: metal sodium is prepared by electrolytically melting a mixture of sodium chloride and calcium chloride. Calcium chloride is used as a flux to lower the melting point of sodium chloride to below 700 °C. Calcium is less soluble than sodium and does not introduce impurities.
3. Sodium chloride is essential for many biological reactions. For example, various solution formulations in molecular biology experiments contain sodium chloride, and bacterial culture medium mostly contains sodium chloride. It is also the raw material for the preparation of soda ash by the ammonia-alkali process.
4. Inorganic and organic industries are used as raw materials for caustic soda, chlorate, hypochlorite, bleaching powder, refrigerant for refrigeration systems, organic synthesis materials and salting-out agents. The steel industry is used as a heat treatment agent.
5. Analytical reagents are used as microanalytical reagents for fluorine and silicate.
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