Density: 2.32 g/cm
Melting point: 115 ° C
Boiling point: 170 ° C
Flash point: 170 ° C
The properties of hydrated copper nitrate and anhydrous copper nitrate are quite different.
Copper nitrate is a nitrate of copper (II) and has a chemical formula of Cu(NO3)2. Both anhydrate and hydrate are blue crystals, but the properties are quite different. Hydrated copper nitrate is commonly used to demonstrate galvanic cell reactions in schools.
Bright blue anhydrous copper nitrate (Cu(NO3)2) is a volatile solid that sublimes in a vacuum. In the gaseous state, the Cu(NO3)2 monomer is a planar square structure, and each Cu atom is connected to four oxygen atoms, and polymerization occurs upon condensation.
The general structure of the Cu(NO3)2 monomer in the gaseous state.
In Cu(NO3)2·(H2O)2.5 containing 2.5 crystal water, the central copper is surrounded by water molecules and nitrates, and is an octahedral coordination structure.
The hydrate decomposes to copper oxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen at around 170 °C:
2Cu(NO3)2(s) → 2CuO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
Nitric acid can be obtained by thermally decomposing copper nitrate and introducing the generated gas into water. This method is similar to the last step of the Oswald method.
2Cu(NO3)2→ 2CuO + 4NO2+ O2
3NO2+ H2O → 2HNO3+ NO
The thin wood strips soaked in copper nitrate emit an emerald green light under the flame, and the addition of magnesium nitrate produces an orange-green light.
The water-containing Cu(NO3)2 is heated to form a basic salt, which is further decomposed into copper oxide by heating, so that it is impossible to obtain anhydrous copper nitrate by heating the hydrate.
Anhydrous Cu(NO3)2 can be prepared by reacting metallic copper with N2O4:
Cu + 2N2O4→ Cu(NO3)2+ 2NO
Copper nitrate can also be obtained by displacement reaction of copper with a silver nitrate solution.
It can also be made by converting copper into high temperature copper oxide and then using nitric acid (low cost, no pollution)
Prepared by reacting copper with nitric acid:
4HNO3 (concentrated) + Cu = Cu (NO3) 2+ NO + 2H2O
8HNO3 (lean) +3Cu=3Cu(NO3)2+2NO+4H2O
Aromatic silicone compound nitrating agent. Organic reaction catalyst.