Sodium citrate is used as a flavoring agent and stabilizer in the food and beverage industry; as an anti-coagulant, phlegm and diuretic in the pharmaceutical industry; in the detergent industry, it can be used as a non-toxic alternative to sodium tripolyphosphate. A detergent builder; a chemically superior chelating/complexing agent that is industrially utilized for the use of sodium citrate. Also used in brewing, injection, photographic drugs and electroplating.
The sodium citrate is an organic compound that looks white to colorless crystals. Odorless, cool and salty. It is stable at room temperature and in air, slightly soluble in humid air, and weathering in hot air. The crystal water was lost by heating to 150 °C. Soluble in water, soluble in glycerin, insoluble in alcohols and other organic solvents, superheated and decomposed, slightly deliquescent in a humid environment, slightly weathered in hot air, the pH of the solution is about 8.
Sodium citrate is currently the most important citrate. It is mainly produced by fermentation of starch into citric acid and neutralization with alkali. It has the following excellent properties:
(1) Safe and non-toxic performance. Since the raw material for preparing sodium citrate is basically derived from food, it is absolutely safe and reliable, and does not cause harm to human health. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization do not impose any restrictions on their daily intake and may consider it to be drug-free.
(2) It is biodegradable. Sodium citrate is partially diluted with citric acid after being diluted with a large amount of water in nature, and both coexist in the same system. Citric acid is easily biodegraded in water by the action of oxygen, heat, light, bacteria and microorganisms. The decomposition pathway is generally converted to carbon dioxide and water by aconitic acid, itaconic acid, and citraconic anhydride.
(3) It has the ability to complex metal ions. Sodium citrate has a good complexing ability for metal ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, and also has good complexing ability for other metal ions such as Fe2+ plasma.
(4) Excellent solubility properties, and solubility increases as the water temperature increases.
(5) Has good pH adjustment and cushioning properties. Sodium citrate is a weak acid and strong base salt, which is compatible with citric acid to form a strong pH buffer. Therefore, it is of great use in some situations where pH is not suitable for a wide range of changes. In addition, sodium citrate also has excellent retarding properties and stability properties.
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