The internal carbon atoms of graphene are arranged in the same manner as the graphite monoatomic layer by sp2 hybrid orbital, and have the following characteristics: carbon atoms have four valence electrons, and three of them generate sp2 bonds, that is, each carbon atom Contributing to an unbonded electron in the pz orbital, the pz orbital of the neighboring atom forms a π bond in a direction perpendicular to the plane, and the newly formed π bond is semi-filled.
Graphene is one of the materials with the highest strength known, and it also has good toughness and can be bent. The theoretical Young's modulus of graphene is 1.0TPa, and the inherent tensile strength is 130GPa. The reduced graphene modified by hydrogen plasma also has very good strength, and the average modulus can be as large as 0.25 TPa.
Graphene has a carrier mobility of about 15000 cm 2 /(V·s) at room temperature, which is more than 10 times that of silicon. It is the most known material for indium halide (InSb). More than twice. The carrier mobility of graphene can be as high as 250,000 cm 2 /(V·s) under certain conditions such as low temperature. Unlike many materials, the electron mobility of graphene is less affected by temperature changes. The electron mobility of single-layer graphene is about 15000 cm2/(V·s) at any temperature between 50 and 500K.
Graphene has very good thermal conductivity. The pure defect-free single-layer graphene has a thermal conductivity of up to 5300 W/mK, which is the highest thermal conductivity carbon material, higher than single-walled carbon nanotubes (3500 W/mK) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (3000 W/mK). .
Graphene has very good optical properties and absorbs about 2.3% over a wide wavelength range and looks almost transparent. In the thickness range of several layers of graphene, the absorption rate increases by 2.3% for each additional layer of thickness. Large-area graphene films also have excellent optical properties, and their optical properties change as the thickness of the graphene changes. This is an unusual low-energy electron structure of single-layer graphene. A voltage is applied to the double-gate bilayer graphene field effect transistor at room temperature, and the band gap of the graphene can be adjusted between 0 and 0.25 eV. With the application of a magnetic field, the optical response of the graphene nanoribbons can be tuned to the terahertz range.
Solubility: exhibits good solubility in non-polar solvents, superhydrophobic and superlipophilic.
Melting point: Scientists in the 2015 study expressed about 4125K, and other studies have shown that the melting point may be around 5000K.
Other properties: It can adsorb and desorb various atoms and molecules.
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