Iodine is extremely important to the life of animals and plants. Iodide and iodate in seawater enter the metabolism of most marine organisms. In advanced mammals, iodine is concentrated in the thyroid gland in the form of iodinated amino acids, and the lack of iodine causes goiter. About 2/3 of the iodine and compounds are used to prepare preservatives, disinfectants, and drugs such as iodonium and iodoform CHI3. Sodium iodate is insufficient as a food additive to supplement iodine intake. The radioisotope iodine-131 is used in radiotherapy and radioactive tracer techniques. Iodine can also be used in the manufacture of dyes and photographic film.
Iodine is closely related to human health. Adults contain 20-50 mg of iodine, which is essential for the normal functioning of the human thyroid gland. When the body is deficient in iodine, it will develop goiter.
Iodine is one of the essential trace elements of the human body and is known as the "intellectual element". The total amount of iodine in healthy adults is about 30 mg (20-50 mg), of which 70% to 80% is present in the thyroid gland.
1. To promote biooxidation, thyroxine can promote biooxidation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, coordinate the coupling of biooxidation and phosphorylation, and regulate energy conversion.
2. Regulates protein synthesis and decomposition. When protein intake is insufficient, thyroxine promotes protein synthesis; when protein intake is sufficient, thyroxine promotes protein breakdown.
3. Promotes the metabolism of sugar and fat. Thyroxine accelerates the absorption and utilization of sugar, promotes the decomposition and oxidation of glycogen and fat, regulates serum cholesterol and phospholipid concentration, and so on.
4. Regulating the metabolism of water and salt, thyroxine can promote the water and salt in the tissue to enter the blood and discharge from the kidney. When it is lacking, it can cause water and salt retention in the tissue. The tissue fluid containing a lot of mucin appears in the interstitial space, and mucinous edema occurs.
5. Promote the absorption and utilization of vitamins, thyroxine can promote the absorption and utilization of niacin, carotene is converted into vitamin A process and riboflavin is synthesized into riboflavin adenine dinucleotide.
6. Enhance the activity of the enzyme, thyroxine can activate more than 100 kinds of enzymes in the body, such as cytochrome, succinate oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, etc., play a role in material metabolism.
7. Promotes growth and development, thyroxine promotes bone development and protein synthesis, maintaining the normal structure of the central nervous system.
More news: Physical properties of Iodine