The metal Osmium is gray-blue and is a metal whose density is only lower than ruthenium in the known elements. Osmium is a dense hexagonal crystal structure. It is a very hard metal. It is hard and brittle at high temperature.
The crustal abundance of Osmium is 1×10-7%. It is mainly produced in chromite, copper iron ore and sand mines related to basic and ultrabasic rocks, and a few are produced in molybdenum ore. The main mineral is an intermetallic compound formed with rhodium, and contains a small amount of rhodium and platinum.
Osmium are seven natural isotopes of masses 184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, and 192, and their abundances (mass fraction ω/%) are 0.018, 1.59, 1.64, 13.3, 16.1, 26.4, and 41.0, respectively. It is mainly produced in the former Soviet Union and South Africa.
Osmium is mainly used as an alloy hardening element, and the niobium alloy obtained is used for electrical contact materials, nibs, styluses, compass needle tips, and the like. It is used as a catalyst in organic synthesis to synthesize a halogen alcohol and a polymer. Uses in medicine, biology, physical chemistry, and metallurgy are under development.
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