Lithium is a silvery white metal that is very light and has a density of 0.534 grams per cubic centimeter and is the lightest of all metals. Lithium is used in the metallurgical industry. Adding a small amount of lithium (five hundredths of a million) to copper can greatly improve the performance of copper: this is because lithium has active chemical properties and can react with harmful impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, etc. The role of the agent. Adding a small amount of lithium to aluminum, magnesium and other metals can improve their robustness and acid and alkali resistance.
The metallic lithium characteristic is only one-fifth of the weight of the same volume of aluminum and one-half of the water. Lithium can not only float on the water, but even float on kerosene. If a plane is made of lithium, two people can lift it!
Lithium compounds also have many uses. The most notable of these is the lithium hydride, lithium hydride. When lithium metal and hydrogen act, a white lithium hydride powder is formed. Lithium hydride can react violently with water to release a large amount of hydrogen. One kilogram of lithium hydride and water can release 2,800 liters of hydrogen! Therefore, lithium hydride can be regarded as a convenient "warehouse" for storing hydrogen. Two kilograms of lithium hydride and water release hydrogen, which is equivalent to a hydrogen gas contained in a common hydrogen steel cylinder with a pressure of 120 to 150 atmospheres. Lithium hydride is also an important raw material for thermonuclear reactions. In addition, some compounds of lithium are also used as glazes in the ceramic industry. In the glass industry, it is used to make opal glass and special glass that can pass ultraviolet rays. The fluorescent screen glass of a TV set is lithium glass. The addition of lithium hydroxide to the alkaline battery can greatly increase its capacitance.
Lithium should be stored in a dry environment. Lithium metal does not react with oxygen. It reacts with oxygen only in a humid environment. The color changes from silvery white to black and then to white. Lithium metal in the laboratory is generally stored in a dry inert atmosphere.